Use of diuretics in Chronic kidney disease
Chronic kidney disease is a condition that damages the kidneys and characterised by the gradual loss of kidney functions over time. Inability to purify waste in the kidney let’s high level of wastes to build into blood and may cause severe complications like high blood pressure, anemia, weak bones and poor nutritional health. The disease when left for a long time increases the risk of heart and blood vessel diseases.
Causes of chronic kidney disease
The two prime reasons for CKD are diabetes and high blood pressure, which is responsible for nearly two thirds of the total cases. If poorly uncontrolled, high blood pressure may even cause heart attacks, strokes and chronic kidney diseases.
Other causes of kidney disorders are
Polycystic kidney disease polycystic kidney disease is an inherited disease which forms large cysts in the kidney and causes damage to other surrounding tissues.
Glomerulonephritis causes inflammation and damage to the filtering units of the kidney. Global nephritis is the third most prevalent type of kidney disease cost.
Malformations when a baby develops into mothers womb, certain lack of nourishment causes malformations, for instance, narrowing of ureters that may cause back flow of urine up to the kidney and indelibly damages the kidney.
Certain obstructions like kidney stones, tumours, if left untreated can become one of the almighty reasons for chronic kidney disease
Repeated urine infections are also one of the causes of chronic kidney disease.
Symptoms of chronic kidney disorder
The symptoms of chronic kidney disorder appear when the kidney disease becomes severe. Moreover, some of the common symptoms of CKD are
- trouble in concentrating
- trouble sleeping
- muscle cramps generally at night
- swollen feet and ankles
- increased frequency of urination during nights.
The CKD is not limited to a certain age group instead it may appear at any age. The risk of kidney disease increases if you are suffering from any of the following diseases
- high blood pressure
- genetic inheritance of kidney failure disease.
Role of diuretics in CKD
Diuretics, also called as water spills, promote diuresis in order to increase the production of urine. diuretics helps to get rid of salt that is sodium and water. It is also used to treat high blood pressure, oedema and other complications.
Diuretics provide great help to manage the patients with CKD. Diuretics reduce extracellular fluid volume, lower the blood pressure, and reduce the risk of CVD in CKD. It also facilitates the action of angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors along with other antihypertensive drugs and also helps control hyperkalaemia.
Types of diuretics
There are mainly three types of diuretics
- thiazide diuretics- acts on distal tubules
- loop diuretics- acts on thick ascending Limb of loop of Henle.
- Potassium sparing diuretics -acts on collecting tubules.
These are the most commonly prescribed diuretics by the specialists to cure CKD, most often used for treating high blood pressure and helps relax blood vessels. Sometimes, it is also recommended to intake tire sites along with other medications to lower blood pressure. The most common thiazides includes
Loop diuretics are often used for the treatment of heart failures. the most common examples of loop diuretics are
- Torsemide (Dytor)
- Furosemide (Lasix)
Potassium sparing diuretics
Potassium sparing diuretics are used to reduce the fluidic levels in the body in order to lose potassium which is absolutely an important nutrient of the body. Potassium sparing diuretics prevents the loss of potassium from the body but the other types of diuretics may cause you to lose potassium, leading to some health problems such as arrhythmia .
Potassium sparing diuretics has no particular effect on lowering the levels of blood pressure but it is prescribed sometimes by the nephrologists to intake it along with other medications to lower blood pressure.
Some of the common examples of potassium sparing diuretics are yes
- Triamterene ( Dyrenium)
- Spironolactone ( Aldactone)
- Eperenone (Inspra)
Side effects of diuretics
Well, diuretics when taken in prescribed amount does not cause any kind of contraindications., however, it may cause some side effects that includes :-
- Low sodium levels
- Low potassium levels in the blood
- Increased thirst.
- Increase in blood sugar levels.
- Increase in cholesterol amounts.
- Skin rashes/skin irritation.
While in rare cases, the symptoms may become severe in certain cases that includes
- Allergic reactions
- Kidney failures.
- Irregularities in heartbeat.
In chronic kidney disorder, the most commonly prescribed diuretics is Loop diuretics which is given once or twice daily to the patients when in 4th Or 5th stages of CKD. But the loop diuretics in combination with thiazide diuretics can also be used by the patients having considerable extracellular fluid volume expansion and Oedema. Among the loop diuretics, bumetanide, furosemide, and torsemide are frequently used. Loop diuretics when administered increases Sodium, potassium, hydrogen ion and calcium levels in the body.
To the patients with CKD, high doses of loop diuretics are recommended. The pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetic properties of loop diuretics results in their high efficacy even in some severe cases of compromised renal functions. Torsemide, a new long acting loop diuretic, is as potent as furosemide in patients having advanced renal failures. Torsemide has many advantages that includes a longer half life independent of renal functions, shows no indications of toxic side effects and precisely, shares less influence on Calciureseis. The patients with non kidney dysfunction or acute CKD are also recommended the low doses of loop diuretics to lower the blood pressure and acquaint heart failures.
Other related questions
Which diuretics are bad for kidneys
Use of diuretics helps cure kidney diseases but certain medications such as hydrochlorothiazide, furosemide and spironolactone are associated with high risks of acute kidney injuries.
Can you consume diuretics if you have kidney disease?
Potassium sparing diuretics are generally avoided once your kidney functions gets below about 30℅ function and in some cases, thiazides diuretics are even not effective. Well, nephrologists use many diuretics in combination with certain medications to cure kidney disease safely.
Can diuretics cause kidney failures?
Diuretics are used by the nephrologists to treat high blood pressure and oedema and even helps to get rid of some extra fluid. But the rustic use of diuretics may dehydrate you which are considered bad for your kidneys and in severe cases, may cause kidney failures.
Do diuretics affect creatinine levels in the body?
Use of diuretics alters the glomerular filtrate rate and possibly the creatinine excretion by the kidneys is also altered.
Do diuretics help in CHF?
Diuretics such as furosemide, bumetanide, and chlorothiazide may be used in CHF, whereas conventional diuretics appear to reduce the risk of death and the worsening heart failures.
What are some natural diuretics used in CKD?
What are the different ways to get rid of water retention fast?
- Exercise on a regular basis.
- Take electrolytes.
- Manage salt intake.
- Supplement with magnesium.
- Drink more water.